GENDER IN THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
 
END NOTES
 

Statistics Sweden, Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change, 1996, p.43.

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), “Millennium development goals and statistical literacy”, a paper presented at the Seventh Session of the Statistical Committee (Beirut, 7-9 November 2006) (E/ESCWA/SCU/2006/IG.1/6). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/divisions/scu/events/7-9nov06/item%206-MDGs.doc.

ESCWA, The Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region 2005 (E/ESCWA/SCU/2005/3/Rev.1). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/publications/edit/upload/scu-05-3-rev1.pdf.

The Arab Least Developed Countries – as adopted by The Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region 2007: A Youth Lens, include Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen.

United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), Department of Economic and Social Affairs, “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women”. Available at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/.

United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), Pathway to Gender Equality: CEDAW, Beijing and the MDGs. Available at: http://www.unifem.org/resources/listing_by_section.php?pageNum_rsProduct=1&totalRows_rsProduct=8&WebSectionID=6.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Bureau of Development Policy, En Route to Equality: A Gender Review of National MDG Reports 2005. Available at: http://www.undp.org/women/docs/en-route-to-equality.pdf.

Ibid.

Noeleen Heyzer, UNIFEM, “Smart Development: Gender equality key to achieving the MDGs”, a speech delivered at the sixty-first session of the United Nations General Assembly, 2006.

ESCWA, The Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region 2005 (E/ESCWA/SCU/2005/3/Rev.1). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/publications/edit/upload/scu-05-3-rev1.pdf.

UNIFEM, Pathway to Gender Equality: Linking CEDAW, Beijing and the MDGs. Available at: http://www.unifem.org/resources/listing_by_section.php?pageNum_rsProduct=1&totalRows_rsProduct=8&WebSectionID=6.

United Nations Millennium Project. Available at: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/who/who04.htm.

Caren Grown and Geeta Rao Gupta, Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, United Nations Millennium Project Taskforce on Education and Gender Equality, 2005. Available at: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Gender-complete.pdf.

Economic Commission for Africa, The African Gender and Development Index, 2004. Available at: http://www.uneca.org/eca_programmes/acgd/publications/agdi_book_final.pdf.

ESCWA, “Final report on the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGs in the Arab Countries (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007)”, p.5. Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

UNDP, Bureau of Development Policy, En Route to Equality: A Gender Review of National MDG Reports 2005. Available at: http://www.undp.org/women/docs/en-route-to-equality.pdf.

ESCWA, “Assessment of gender indicators in the MDGs”; and Statistics Sweden, “Gender and MDGs”, papers presented at the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGS in the Arab Region (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

United Nations Statistics Division, “Millennium Development Goals indicators”. Available at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx.

Canadian Development Agency, Guide to Gender Sensitive Indicators, 2000, p. 8. Available at: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/Policy/$file/WID-GUID-E.pdf.

Canadian International Development Agency, Guide to Gender-Sensitive Indicators, (Canada, Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997) p. 9. Available at: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/Policy/$file/WID-GUID-E.pdf.

United Nations, Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95) (New York, United Nations, 2003).

ESCWA, “Measuring and fostering progress in the Arab societies: Towards an integration of Arab region in the global initiative of measuring progress,” a background paper presented at the Second Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policy: Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies (Istanbul, 27-30 June 2007). Available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/28/1/38797396.pdf?contentId=38797397.

The data sets/indicators were identified by the United Nations for use in planning and monitoring development achievements and are supplied for reference purposes only. Available at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/news/question.htm.

United Nations Secretary-General, speech to the General Assembly on achieving gender equality, women’s empowerment a condition for building healthier, more peaceful societies, 6 March 2007. Available at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2007/sgsm10898.doc.htm.

ESCWA, “Gender indicators in the Arab region,” a paper presented at the Inter-agency Expert Group Meeting on Gender and the MDGs, (Cairo, 10-12 September). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

Carolyn Hannan, United Nations, DAW, “Opening address”, International Workshop on Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals, in cooperation with the World Bank, (Washington, D.C., 19-20 November 2003). Available at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/news/speech2003/CH-MDG03.htm.

ESCWA, Report of the Regional Workshop on the Development of National Gender Statistics Programmes in the Arab Countries (E/ESCWA/STAT/1997/7) (Tunis, 9-14 June 1997). Available at: http://www.escwa.un.org/gsp/documents/pdf/wkshop.pdf.

ESCWA, “Final report on the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGs in the Arab Countries (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007)”, p.5. Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

Ibid., p.4.

Caren Grown and Geeta Rao Gupta, Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, United Nations Millennium Project Taskforce on Education and Gender Equality, 2005. Available at: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Gender-complete.pdf.

ESCWA, “Final report of the Inter-agency and expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGS in the Arab Region (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007)”, p. 4. Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

Ibid., p.5.

UNDP, Capacity 2015-Arab States Programme Annual Report 2006, Capacity Development Group, 2006. Available at: http://capacity.undp.org/index.cfm?module=Library&page=DocumentList&LibraryID=13&RegionID=5.

Caren Grown, “Achieving gender equality: How to hasten progress and how much does it cost”, prepared for the Asian Development Bank, May 2006. Available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2006/Gender-Equality/achieving-gender-equality.pdf.

Ibid.

Caren Grown and Geeta Rao Gupta, Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, United Nations Millennium Project Taskforce on Education and Gender Equality, 2005. Available at: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Gender-complete.pdf.

Ibid.

Statistics Sweden, “Gender and MDGs”, a paper presented at the presented at the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGS in the Arab Region (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

ESCWA, “Proposed gender issues and gender-sensitive indicators,” a paper presented at the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGs in the Arab Region (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

Statistics Sweden, “Gender and MDGs”, a paper presented at the Inter-agency and Expert Group Meeting on Gender and MDGS in the Arab Region (Cairo, 10-11 September 2007). Available at: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetingdetails.asp?referenceNum=529E.

Economic and Social Affairs, The World’s Women 2005: Progress in Statistics (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/17).

For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available.

An alternative indicator under development is “primary completion rate”.

Amongst contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. Since the condom use rate is only measured among women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator on condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and an indicator on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19b). Indicator 19c (contraceptive prevalence rate) is also useful in tracking progress regarding other health, gender and poverty goals.

This indicator is defined as the percentage of population aged 15-24 who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission, and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there are currently not a sufficient number of surveys to be able to calculate the indicator as defined above, the United Nations Children’s Fund, in collaboration with Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the World health Organization, produced two proxy indicators that represent two components of the actual indicator. They are the following: (a) percentage of women and men aged 15-24 who know that a person can protect herself/himself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom”; (b) percentage of women and men aged 15-24 who know a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV.

Prevention to be measured by the percentage of children under 5 years old sleeping under insecticide-treated bed-nets; treatment to be measured by percentage of children under 5 years old who are appropriately treated.

An improved measure of the target for future years is under development by the International Labour Organization.

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